The first menstrual period (menarche) occurs around the age of 12 – 13 and ceases with menopause, around the age of 50.
Although women can conceive on any day of their menstrual cycle, fertility is at its peak two days before and two days after ovulation. This “fertility window” varies among women, and from cycle to cycle in the same woman.
An egg may be fertilized up to 2 days after ovulation. Spermatozoa survive for 2 – 3 days in the women’s reproductive system, with a maximum of 5 days.
These parameters are important and should be taken into account by couples whose means of contraception is based on the calendar method.
A woman’s likelihood of conceiving is based primarily on age and is as follows:
|30 years old||35 years old||40 years old|
|75% of conception within 1 year||66% of conception within 1 year||44% of conception within 1 year|
|91% of conception within 4 years||84% of conception within 4 years||64% of conception within 4 years|
As a general rule, it is recommended that a couple consult a Fertility Specialist if they have been trying to conceive for a year with no success. They should seek medical advice earlier if there is a history of miscarriages, gynecological surgery or woman’s age over 35 years.
The advanced age in men is associated with decreased semen volume, lower sperm density (oligospermia), reduced motility (asthenospermia) and abnormal morphology (teratozoospermia).
• In males 20 – 39 years old, 90 % of the seminiferous tubules contain mature sperm
• In males 40 – 69 years old, 50 % of the seminiferous tubules contain mature sperm
• In males ≥ 80, 10 % of the seminiferous tubules contain mature sperm