The fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. An oocyte is fertilized by sperm within the fallopian tube and is then transported to the uterus, where it implants.
An assessment of the fallopian tubes is performed either by Hystero-salpingography (which is approximately 70% accurate) or by diagnostic Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy (almost 100% accurate). The choice of preference depends on many factors, including: the couple’s medical history, availability of techniques, cost, etc.
In the absence of complications (infections, abdominal surgery, endometriosis, etc.), it is rare for the fallopian tubes to be responsible for the infertility. Therefore, they are usually screened when all other tests are normal and the couple is to undergo intrauterine insemination or ovulation induction.
Conditions where the tubes are stretched and deformed are termed hydrosalpinx. In such cases, tubal corrective surgery is proposed, as many scientific studies confirm that the presence of hydrosalpinx significantly reduces the chances of pregnancy either by natural conception or methods of assisted reproduction.
The uterus receives, hosts and supports the fetus for the nine months of its development until birth. Uterine assessment includes a combination of transvaginal ultrasounds, hystero-salpingography and hysteroscopy, as deemed appropriate.
A transvaginal ultrasound is the test of choice for evaluating ovarian morphology, as it allows the detection of ovarian cysts (endometriomas or “chocolate cysts”, dermoid cysts, functional cysts, etc), in addition to the diagnosis of polycystic ovaries.